Moon Over Wimberly

Melissa Dagley

Science

The science behind developing pictures.

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When you click the shutter button on your camera, the shutter opens for a fraction of a second, allowing light rays to penetrate through the aperture and lens. A latent image is formed by visible energy reflected off the objects in your viewfinder.

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Light rays rearrange silver halide crystals in the emulsion layer of the film.

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When the film is put into developer, the developer chemically reacts with the light-struck silver halide crystals, turning them black. After the film is rinsed, fixer is then used to remove the crystals that were not exposed to light.

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What is left is a negative, areas where the most light struck are the darkest, and areas where the least light struck are the lightest.

Light is then passed through the negative and onto photographic paper, which is also light sensitive.

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The exposure of the negative onto the paper is called printing.

In color film, instead of just one emulsion layer, there are several different layers, each corresponding to a different color.

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Black & White Development Step-By-Step Process

  1. In the first step of processing, the film is placed in developing agent that is actually a reducing agent. Given the chance, the reducing agent will convert all the silver ions into silver metal. Those grains that have latent-image sites will develop more rapidly. With the proper control of temperature, time and agitation, grains with latent images will become pure silver. The unexposed grains will remain as silver-halide crystals.
  2. The next step is to complete the developing process by rinsing the film with water, or by using a “stop” bath that arrests the development process.
  3. The unexposed silver-halide crystals are removed in what is called the fixing bath. The fixer dissolves only silver-halide crystals, leaving the silver metal behind.
  4. In the final step, the film is washed with water to remove all the processing chemicals. The film strip is dried, and the individual exposures are cut into negatives.

 

Here are the steps in developing the color print paper after it is exposed:

Color Development Step-By-Step Process

  1. The latent-image sites are developed, and oxidized developer molecules combine with the color-forming couplers to create a silver image and a dye image. The reaction is stopped by a washing step.
  2. The silver image and any remaining unexposed silver halide is removed in a combined bleach-plus-fix solution (called the BLIX).
  3. The print is then carefully washed to remove any residual chemicals.
  4. The print is dried.

My Developing Process

I decided to use a homemade developing and stop solution for my first time developing pictures.

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I made the developing solution by mixing

For the stop solution I mixed

Step 1.

In total darkness, take the paper out of the camera and place it in the developing solution.

Step 2.

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After 2 minutes, using a red light, check for an image appearing.

Step 3.

When it looks ready, take the photo out with kitchen tongs, and put it in the stop solution for 30 seconds.

Step 4.

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Rinse in plain water and leave to dry.

Step 5.
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Negative

Pinhole Camera Shed

Positive

Scan the image and use Photoshop to invert from a negative to a positive.



Technology

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How camera technology affects photography.

To gain an understanding of how the choice of camera can change the final photo that is produced I plan to take the same image with 4 different cameras, a pinhole camera, my cell phone, a point and shoot, and a DSLR. I’m hoping to see how much difference there is, I’m expecting to see a large difference from the pinhole camera, but I’m not sure about the others.

Cameras Used

 

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Engineering

Making a Pinhole Camera

Pinhole cameras are pretty simple to build and use. All you really need is a light proof container with a small pinhole that acts as the lens, and a cover for the lens, which will be your shutter. You also need to be able to load a piece of light sensitive photography paper or film into your camera.

I used a black cardboard box as the body of my camera.

To create the lens, I cute a square piece of aluminum out of a coke can, and then sanded down the edges, and sanded off the paint/finish/etc.

I then used a push pin to poke a hole in the center of the aluminum square.

The next step was to cute a hole in the center of my camera body that was slightly smaller than my lens.

Then tape your lens to the inside of the box, so that the pinhole is centered in the hole. (Ideally you should use black tape, I had to improvise a little.)

Next you need a square of lightproof paper (I used black cardstock), for the shutter.

You should tape the shutter over the lens, so that you can easily open it, in order to take a picture all you need to do is open the shutter.

For my camera I marked the center on the inside of the lid, this is where I will load the photographic paper.







Art

How do these female forms relate to the trajectory of classical figurative art?

Figure: A pictorial or sculptural representation, especially of the human body.

Figurative art: describes any form of modern art that retains strong references to the real world and particularly to the human figure

The nude female form has been the subject of artists for centuries. One popular subject, is that of female bathers. In some representations they are washing their hair, drying off, etc. But in others you can see a group of women having fun and letting loose. While the photograph, “Moon Over Wimberly” is not of women bathing, I think it captures some of the aspects portrayed in these classical figurative works. The photography has a playful spirit and a familiar subject.

Other examples of figure art

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La Baigeneuse “The Bather” – Paul Emile Chabas (Oil on Canvas)

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Les bains de mers “Bathing Waters” – Paul Fischer

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de dos “back” – Henri Montassier

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Baigneuses “Bathers” – Jean-Jacques Henner

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Baigneuses “Bathers” – Henri-Edmond Cross

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Prostemee ” Protstrated” – Edgar Degas

 



Math

Pinhole Camera Model

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The pinhole camera model is used to project a 3D point onto an image plane. The formula is modeled on the way pinhole cameras work, and can be used to project how a camera depicts a 3D scene in computer graphics and computer vision.

The origin O in the above coordinate system is where the camera’s aperture is located. There are three axes, X1, X2, and X3. X3 is the viewing direction of the camera and is referred to as the optical axis. Point R is the image center. There is an image plane, which is distance f from the origin. f is the focal length.

In this model the pinhole is infinitely small since it is an ideal pinhole camera model. In the real world the pinhole must be a discrete size, which is one variable in the accuracy of this model.

The mapping of the points from the 3D coordinates to the 2D coordinates described by a pinhole camera is a perspective projection followed by a 180° rotation in the image plane. This corresponds to how a real pinhole camera works. The resulting image is rotated 180° and the relative size of projected objects depends on their distance to the focal point.

The formula for finding the projected image is:

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To find the unrotated image, the formula is:

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